This reviewer is particularly designed for lecturers of social psychology subject to psychology-major students providing a comprehensive set of items that attempt to include the introductory chapters, social beliefs and judgments, behavior and attitudes, gender and culture, group influence and conformity. This assessment involves 50 items for identification and 30 items for true or false category. Answer choices are provided in random appearance and this would allocate students 120 minutes of time to answer the test.
INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
1. It studies the effect of other persons on individuals. As a discipline, it is concerned with social attitudes and group behavior.
2. The combination of feelings, beliefs and actions tendencies towards classes of persons or objects that is directly or indirectly social in nature.
3. A broad term to connote all the responses overt or implicit, muscular or glandular of an organism.
4. Is a kind of attitude where one’s mind is made up even before all the facts are known or has comes to one’s attention. It is often a matter of pre judgment.
5. Is an intense emotional state involving attraction, sexual desire and concern for another person.
6. Focus on private internal functioning and on differences between individuals- for example why some individuals are more aggressive than others.
7. Stresses conformity, consensus and the preservation and reproduction of the social order.
8. Through which children learn to accept the value the norms and values of society.
9. Takes the gender aspect of oppression and contends that the nuclear family preserves and reproduces patriarchal ideology and contributes to the oppression of both women and children.
10. State policies support this ideology and emphasize the importance of women as mothers (e.g. maternity leave).
ANSWER CHOICES: social psychology, behaviour, social attitude, love, personality psychology, prejudice, functionalism, primary socialization, feminism, Marxist feminist
THE SELF IN THE SOCIAL WORLD
11. A person’s answers to the question “Who am I?”
12. Beliefs about self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information.
13. Images of what we dream of or dread becoming in the future.
14. A person’s overall self-evaluation or sense of self-worth
15. Evaluating one’s abilities and opinions by comparing oneself to others.
16. The concept of giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications.
17. The concept of giving priority to the goals of one’s groups and defining one’s identity accordingly.
18. The extent to which people perceive outcomes as internally controllable by their own efforts and actions or as externally controlled by chance or outside forces.
19. The tendency to perceive oneself favorably.
20. The act of expressing oneself and behaving in ways designed to create a favorable impression that corresponds to one’s ideals.
ANSWER CHOICES: self-concept, possible selves, self-esteem, self-schema, collectivism, social comparison, individualism, self-serving bias, locus of control, self-presentation
SOCIAL BELIEFS AND JUDGMENTS
21. The theory of how people explain others’ behavior.
22. The tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences or overestimate dispositional influences upon others’ behavior.
23. A self-conscious state in which attention focuses on oneself. It makes people more sensitive to their own attitudes and dispositions.
24. The tendency to be more confident than correct to overestimate the accuracy of one’s belief.
25. A tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions.
26. The strategy of judging the likelihood of things by how well they represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information.
27. The tendency to ignore or underuse base-rate information and instead to be influenced by distinctive features of the case being judged.
28. Perception of uncontrollable events as subject to one’s control or as more controllable than they are.
29. A type of self-fulfilling prophecy whereby people’s social expectations lead them to act in ways that cause others to confirm their expectations.
30. Mental templates which are automatically, intuitively, guide our perceptions and interpretations of our experience.
ANSWER CHOICES: self-awareness, attribution theory, overconfidence phenomenon, fundamental attribution error, representativeness heuristic, confirmation bias, base-rate fallacy, behavioural confirmation, illusion of control, schema
BEHAVIOR AND ATTITUDES
31. A favorable or unfavorable evaluative reaction toward something or someone exhibited in one’s beliefs, feelings, or intended behavior.
32. A set of norms that define how people in a given social position ought to behave.
33. Being attuned to the way one presents oneself in social situations and adjusting one’s performance to create the desired impression.
34. Tension that arises when one is simultaneously aware of two inconsistent cognitions.
35. The theory that when unsure of our attitudes, we infer them much as would someone observing us by looking at our behavior and the circumstances under which it occurs.
36. The result of bribing people to do what they already like doing; they may then see their action as externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing.
37. Suggests that parents should aim to elicit desired behavior non-coercively, thus motivating children to internalize the appropriate attitudes.
38. Reduction of dissonance by internally justifying one’s behavior when external justification is insufficient.
39. The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
40. A tactic for getting people to agree to something. People who agree to an initial request will often still comply when the requester ups the ante.
ANSWER CHOICES: self-monitoring, role, attitude, cognitive dissonance, dissonance theory, self-perception, low-ball technique, over-justification effect, foot in the door phenomenon, insufficient justification effect
GENES, CULTURE AND GENDER
41. The evolutionary process by which nature selects traits that best enable organisms to survive and reproduce in particular environmental niches
42. The study of the evolution of behavior using principles of natural selection.
43. Rules for accepted and expected behavior.
44. The buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies. Its size depends on our familiarity with whoever is near us.
45. The characteristics, whether biologically or socially influenced, by which people define male and female.
46. The vicarious experience of another’s feelings; putting oneself in another’s shoes.
47. Physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone.
48. A set of behavior expectations for males or females.
49. The effect of one factor (such as biology) depends on another factor (such as environment).
50. By intentionally playing a new role, people sometimes change themselves or empathize with people while roles differ from their own.
ANSWER CHOICES: role reversal, gender, natural selection, norms, evolutionary psychology, empathy, gender role, personal space, aggression, interaction
NOTE: Write (T) if the statement is true and (F) if the statement is false and indicate the corresponding answer to make it right. Two (2) points each item.
CONFORMITY AND GROUP INFLUENCE (30 items)
1. Compliance is conformity that involves publicly acting in accord with social pressure while privately disagreeing.
2. Acceptance is a change in behavior or belief as a result of real or imagined group pressure.
3. Acceptance is a conformity that involves both acting and believing in accord with social pressure.
4. Reactance is a “we feeling” – the extent to which members of a group are bound together, such as by attraction for one another.
5. Normative influence is a conformity based on a person’s desire to fulfill others’ expectations, often to gain acceptance.
6. Cohesion is a conformity that results from accepting evidence about reality provided by other people.
7. Commitment is a motive to protect or restore one’s sense of freedom.
8. Status difference is when men tend to occupy positions of greater status and power, so we often see men exerting and women accepting influence.
9. Attitudes fail to determine behavior when external influences override inner convictions.
10. Persuasion occurs as people focus on arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.
11. Credibility is having qualities that appeal to an audience.
12. Primacy effect means other things being equal; information presented first usually has the most influence.
13. Recency effect means information presented last sometimes has the most influence.
14. Pluralistic ignorance is a false impression of how other people are thinking, feeling or responding.
15. Social evaluation means evaluating one’s opinions and abilities by comparing oneself to others.
Answer Key: Identification (50 Points)
1. Social Psychology, 2. Social Attitude, 3. Behavior, 4. Prejudice, 5. Love, 6. Personality Psychology, 7. Functionalism, 8. Primary Socialization, 9. Feminism, 10. Marxist Feminism, 11. Self-concept, 12. Self-schema, 13. Possible selves, 14. Self-esteem, 15. Social Comparison, 16. Individualism, 17. Collectivism, 18. Locus of Control, 19. Self-serving bias, 20. Self-presentation, 21. Attribution Theory, 22. Fundamental Attribution Error, 23. Self-awareness, 24. Over confidence phenomenon, 25. Confirmation bias, 26. Representativeness Heuristic, 27. Base-rate Fallacy, 28. Illusion of Control, 29. Behavioral Confirmation, 30. Schema, 31. Attitude, 32. Role, 33. Self-monitoring, 34. Cognitive Dissonance, 35. Self-perception, 36. Over justification effect, 37. Dissonance Theory, 38. Insufficient justification effect, 39. Foot in the Door Phenomenon, 40. Lowball Technique, 41. Natural Selection, 42. Evolutionary Psychology, 43. Norms, 44. Personal Space, 45. Gender, 46. Empathy, 47. Aggression, 48. Gender Role, 49. Interaction, 50. Role Reversal
Answer Key: True or False (30 Points)
1. Compliance – T, 2. Conformity – F, 3. Acceptance – T, 4. Cohesiveness – F, 5. Normative Influence – T, 6. Informational Influence – F, 7. Reactance – F, 8. Status Differences – T, 9. Attitudes – T, 10. Persuasion – T, 11. Attractiveness – F, 12. Primary Effect – T, 13. Recency Effect – T, 14. Pluralistic Ignorance – T, 15. Social Comparison – F