Task Analysis are often used with Special Education. Teachers of PMH (Profound Mentally Handicapped) And Autism often use a Task Analysis in their classrooms. Some mental hospitals and rehabilitation centers also use Task Analysis to teach individuals.
A Task Analysis is a step by step direction list of how to complete either physical or mental task. The step by step directions give instructions on each particular step of the process in completing the task. Some examples of physical task analysis would be how to brush teeth, how to wash hands, or how to turn a computer on. Mental task analysis include how to subtract numbers or how to complete a simple puzzle. Most Task Analysis are geared towards the physical applications. Many of the tasks are day to day tasks that we take for granted, but that a person with a disability or processing deficit might find difficult.
A great Task Analysis includes a few simple steps.
1) A good Task Analysis will list as few steps as necessary in order to complete the task. The more steps, the more complicated the task. If a long task is the desired outcome, it is best to break the task up into increments, completing the simplest first.
2) The steps given in a Task Analysis should be clear. For example, telling an individual to turn the computer on, would be vague. Giving directions to push the red on button on the hard drive would be more appropriate.
3) The steps should be something that is observable. Writing, “Johnny knows how to turn a computer on” is not observable. All steps should be something that can be observed and recorded.
4) The steps on the Task Analysis will need to be plotted each time the analysis is used with the student. Most schools and workplaces have such a chart. Task Analysis charts can be downloaded from the Internet. One such grid, or template can be downloaded here. http://zakiwarfel.com/archives/task-analysis-grid-template/.
5) Steps on the Task Analysis will need to be plotted every time the Task Analysis is used. Generally a starting point is marked to target how much is learned at each teaching session. The final goal is to have the individual perform all steps without prompting or verbal encouragers.
Not mentioned here, but as important is the reward process. Teaching an individual a Task Analysis is tantamount to behavior modification, and a completed task should be rewarded. Rewards can be as simple as a verbal praise or as complicated as a lunch. However, it is advised that the reward be small and tangible such as a verbal praise or a piece of candy. The award should be appropriate to the age level of the student.
Using a Task Analysis is the best way to teach simple task to someone with a physical or mental disability. For additional assistance, use this website. http://www.behavioradvisor.com/TaskAnalysis.html