Brain anatomy is divided into three parts, the bottom portion being called the hindbrain. Of the hindbrain there are also three main parts, the medulla, pons, and cerebellum. Though not concerned with higher order thinking, the hindbrain is mostly concerned with unrefined movement.
The medulla, being the bottom most section of a hindbrain, is located directly above the spinal cord. In addition to regulating the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, integrating flexes such as swallowing, coughing and sneezing, the medulla also controls head orientation and the positioning of the body’s limbs. This means that the deciding factor in how quickly and deeply we breathe, the rate at which our hearts pump and therefore how much blood is distributed, and our reaction to gravity befalls the medulla.
The section of the hindbrain directly above the medulla is the pons. Anatomically, the pons resembles the medulla in that both hindbrain parts have a smooth exterior, though the pons bulges slightly to the left if the brain is facing forward. Specified regions in the pons integrate movements and sensations from the facial muscles, tongue, eye, and ear. Additionally, the pons also regulates attentiveness and, as one may expect, initiates sleep and dreaming.
The final and perhaps most visually detailed portion of the hindbrain is the cerebellum, or the portion which resembles cauliflower. This part of the hindbrain is in charge of sensing gravity and integrating sensory information from the muscles, joints, and tendons. Various sections of the cerebellum regulate a number of functions. The cerebellum’s first part is in charge of bodily balance, the another the body’s precisely timed movements. This means that skills such as playing the piano and walking in a straight line are controlled by the cerebullum. When toxins such as alcohol enter the body, the cerebullum’s ability to perform is temporarily compromised.