Some of the most well built homes in the United States are built on a stone foundation. Stone foundations are typically constructed out of field stone which is mostly lime stone. While this type of foundation is very strong and obviously can stand the test of time, they are prone to water infiltration. If you have an old basement with a stone foundation like this that you want to turn into finished space, you can by using these methods.
Interior Drain Tile
Cut along the perimeter of the foundation on the floor. Dig down 12 inches and fill the cavity up with 6 inches of clear gravel for drainage. Lay 4 inch perforated drain tile in the trench and cover the top with gravel. Run the drain tile to a sump pit where the excess water can be contained and pumped out. Pour concrete back over the tiled trench and match it up with the existing concrete.
Clean The Walls
Clean the walls with a push broom to remove all of the calcium deposits off the wall. Vacuum the deposits up off the floor. It is imperative that you thoroughly clean the walls.
Frame The Walls
Frame the walls just in front of the tiles area with 2x4s a minimum of 24 inches o.c. (on center). You will have between a 5 and 7 inch gap between the foundation wall and the framed wall.
Insulating The Walls
The only form of insulation that is appropriate for this instance is closed cell spray foam insulation. It will conform to the stone walls of the foundation, adding strength to the walls, but more importantly, allowing water to drain to the bottom of the foundation instead of through the walls. This will control the water, insulate the foundation, and structuralize any portions of the foundation that have gaps. Installing 3 inches of spray foam insulation will be sufficient for this project.
The rest of the basement remodel is the same as any other remodel. Installing the electrical and heating and performing all of the finishing work like drywall and flooring.
Making sure you have properly installed gutters and downspouts directing water away from the foundation. The biggest part of this type of remodel is controlling the water infiltration. The typical installation of all other materials for a basement remodel can now be performed with no worries and added equity in your home.