A patron-client organization is a group of criminal patron’s who exchanged information, established a network of connections with political leaders and government officials, and access to a network of operatives for the purpose of benefiting the groups clients politically and economically. The patron-client network is usually structured using a hierarchy system and consists of one main leader, an underboss, an advisor, captains, and members. Orders are passed down in a vertical position starting at the top with the main boss and then to one underboss who then relates the information to captains. All members of a patron-client organization are formally initiated. In addition, patron-client organizations are tight-knit at the top and middle levels, but losing up and spread out at the bottom level, in which the members are located. By allowing the organizations members to spread out in a spider web like manner, the organization has a better opportunity to evade detection and apprehension by law enforcement, and maintain a steady flow of production and operation (University of Phoenix, 2010).
Bureaucratic organizations are formal and consist of rules, regulations, procedures, and protocols that prevent lower ranking members like the patron-client from making decisions without administrative approval. This is known as the red tape rule when formal documentation is processed by administration before any decision of significance can be made. With the patron-client organization lower ranking members are permitted to take it upon themselves to obtain outside resources, contacts, and conduct business without any approval so long as the business conducted is beneficial to the organization. Moreover, members involved in a bureaucratic organization blame financial issues and failures on administration whereas in a patron-client organization all members are held accountable-responsible for the organizations failure-success (WeeKoh, 2009).
All criminal organizational models consist of similarities and differences but the main purpose is to benefit law enforcement, researchers, society, and professionals with a better understanding of how criminal organizations develop domestically and internationally. Models are based on supporting research, statistics, facts, and convincing arguments that have been gathered by professional psychologists, sociologists, and criminologists. Information presented focuses on organizational structure, purpose and cause, members, and clientele. In addition, each model incorporates unique features that are detail specific. The models presented are tools that provide answers to questions, offer an explanation to why individuals engage in illegal activity, how criminal organizations develop, and why most criminal organizations are successful. These are just a few of the similarities that exist (University of Phoenix, 2010).
Models are extremely importance for understanding organization crime as each provides a wide-range of beneficial information. Models just like theories can display what geographical locations are more prone to the development of criminal organizations than other locations. This in return, can be extremely useful in many ways as it allows law enforcement the ability to implement methods that will deter, prevent, detect, and apprehend individuals involved with illegal organizations and operations. Furthermore, law enforcement can educate society on crime prevention methods, and establish numerous anti-crime and awareness programs, such as neighborhood watch (University of Phoenix, 2010).
After carefully researching the patron-client and bureaucratic organization one can clearly see that legal and illegal organizations have one main purpose to profit. Each organization has numerous similarities and differences, but both are structured in such a fashion that there is always someone who is in charge of maintaining the organizations success. Models just like theories provide useful information to law enforcement, society, and professionals. Models can be considered tools that allow law enforcement and society an opportunity to protect assets while detecting, preventing, apprehending, and deterring the individual wrongdoer or a highly developed criminal organization.
WeeKoh. (2009). Bureaucratic organization. Retrieved August 20, 2010, from http://weekoh.wordpress.com/2009/02/28/briefly-identify-the-main-features-of-bureaucratic-organizations-why-has-bureaucracy-been-accused-of-wiping-out-the-individual-responsibility-of-the-employee/
University of Phoenix. (2010). Week one overview. Retrieved August 20, 2010, from University of Phoenix, Week One, rEsources. CJA393-Interdisciplinary Capstone Course Website.