In most cases, the doctorial program is conducted only through research. In college, students learn, in masters they get better, but in the Ph. d. program, they have to come up with something completely new for their area of study. A Ph.d. scholarship helps them do just that. Because a research can take a lot of time and a lot of money, a student can not pay for all of this. Most common scholarship in this case refers to a scholarship granted by a company or an individual. The student will receive a place and the required materials to conduct his research, like a fully equipped lab, in a laboratory institution if we are talking about science Ph. d.
The student receives basically a fellowship, but it’s not very similar to what the fellowship refers to. When the doctorial program begins, the student already has the money to begin his work. The company, individual and in some cases the university has to permanently supervise the progress that the student makes in his research. If the scholarship contract has specifications about refunding the money in cases in which, the student shows no progress in his research, the organization or the individual can ask for their money back if they can prove that the student has not used the money in the purpose of research.
In getting such a scholarship, not only high scores are important. The experience that the student has in his area of study and work, the recommendations and his achievements are equally important. For instance, a student can get a Ph.d. scholarship only based on his recommendations and on his achievements until he joined the doctorial program.
Such a scholarship can also be referred to a research scholarship, because this is an award and an economical aid for research. The need-student is not applying here, because the Ph.d. scholarship is granted only to students that have gone through a master program, so it’s assuming that they can pay for themselves.